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Making Electric Power Grids Resilient and Secure, Green Tech, Page 21

Making Electric Power Grids Resilient and Secure

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Multi‐Scale Time Hierarchy of Power Systems

ACTION / OPERATION TIME FRAME
Wave effects (fast dynamics, lightning caused overvoltages) Microseconds to milliseconds
Switching overvoltages Milliseconds
Fault protection 100 milliseconds or a few cycles
Electromagnetic effects in machine windings Milliseconds to seconds
Stability 60 cycles or 1 second
Stability Augmentation Seconds
Electromechanical effects of oscillations in motors & generators Milliseconds to minutes
Tie line load frequency control 1 to 10 seconds; ongoing
Economic load dispatch 10 seconds to 1 hour; ongoing
Thermodynamic changes from boiler control action (slow dynamics) Seconds to hours
System structure monitoring (what is energized & what is not) Steady state; on-going
System state measurement and estimation Steady state; on-going
System security monitoring Steady state; on-going
Load Management, load forecasting, generation scheduling 1 hour to 1 day or longer; ongoing.
Maintenance scheduling Months to 1 year; ongoing.
Expansion planning Years; ongoing
Power plant site selection, design, construction, environmental impact, etc. 10 years or longer


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2011 No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without prior authorization.