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Making Electric Power Grids Resilient and Secure, Green Tech, Page 47

Making Electric Power Grids Resilient and Secure

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Transmission Limits
• High dimensional problem
- Large interconnection models (1/5 of the North American 
system) require ~40,000 buses & ~50,000 lines, and ~3,000 
generators with ~120 control areas
- Each line has a capacity limit
- N‐1 Contingency Criteria: The system must withstand the 
loss of any one line or generator (~53,000 contingencies)
• 53,000 x 50,000 = 2,650,000,000 possible constraints


• Reliable operation requires an operating point that 
satisfy these 2.65 billion constraints!

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