Clean Sky: Challenges facing Air Transportation

Clean Sky: Challenges facing Air Transportation

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Description: Environmental Challenges facing the Air Transport today are: Global warming is a world wide issue, fixed targets to reduce negative impacts, global demand for oil will continue to rise, carbon trading allowance and tax are likely to increase. Air Traffic is of significant importance for the enlarged European economy, global competitiveness, and our way of living. What trends are being set for the clean air, aircraft CO2 reduction, aircraft NOx reduction and aircraft noise reduction?.

 
Author: Anita C. (Fellow) | Visits: 2407 | Page Views: 2421
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Environmental Subcategory: Clean Air 
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Maxims of Tech: Rules of Engagement for a Fast Changing Environment
Contents:
CleanSky - Systems for Green
Operation
Transportforum 8 jan 2009
Linköping

Challenges facing Air Transport
Challenges facing Air Transport


Environment







Global warming is a world-wide recognised issue
Europe has fixed clear targets to reduce negative impact
Global demand for oil will continue to rise leading to extremely
volatile prices
Carbon trading allowance or tax is likely to increase

Economy


Air Traffic is of significant importance for the enlarged European
economy, global competitiveness, our way of living

Aeronautics is a major factor in sustainable European
economic growth

2
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Vision 2020 Challenges – ACARE* Goals
Vision 2020 Challenges – ACARE* Goals
Vision 2020 (January 2001)
• To meet Society’s needs
• To achieve global leadership for Europe
ACARE
October 2002 : The Strategic Research Agenda (SRA)
Quality and
Affordability

Environment

Air Transport
System Efficiency

Security

CLEAN SKY

October 2004 : The SRA 2
Very Low
Cost ATS

Safety

5 Challenges

Customer
oriented ATS

Ultra Green
ATS

High level Target Concepts
Highly timeefficient ATS

Ultra Secure
ATS

22nd
Century

• 80% cut in NOx emissions
• Halving perceived aircraft noise
• 50% cut in CO2 emissions per pass-Km by drastic fuel consumption

reduction
• A green design, manufacturing, maintenance and disposal product
life cycle
3
*ACARE – Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe

What do we expect “Clean Sky” to deliver?
What do we expect “Clean Sky” to deliver?
Products entering service between 2015-2025
• Aircraft CO2 reduction
20 – 40 %
• Aircraft NOx reduction
~ 40 %
• Aircraft Noise reduction
~ 20 dB
This will lead to
• Social benefits
• European Aeronautics industry values
• Economic benefits to the EU
through, e.g.
• CO2 savings (less cost of fuel, and less cost of CO2 impact)
• Market opportunities, and added values, for primes and supply chain
• R&D spill-over

4
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

From Challenges to Solutions
From Challenges to Solutions

Reduced fuel
consumption (CO2 &
NOx reduction)

Power plant
Loads & Flow Control
New Aircraft Configurations
Low weight
Aircraft Energy Management
Mission & Trajectory Management

External noise
reduction

Power Plant
Mission & Trajectory Management
Configurations
Rotorcraft Noise Reduction

"Ecolonomic"
life cycle

Aircraft Life Cycle

5
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

From Solutions to Demonstrations
From Solutions to Demonstrations
Smart structures &
low-noise configurations

New concepts & active control

Innovative rotor &
engine integration

Monitoring
Consistency
Synergy

Low-noise &
lightweight low-pressure systems
High efficiency low Nox cores
Novel configurations

All electrical aircraft technologies and systems
Thermal management
Green trajectories management
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Green design, manufacture,
maintenance, recycling for
Airframe & Systems

6

Clean Sky: An integrated and comprehensive approach
Clean Sky: An integrated and comprehensive approach
TOTAL Budget: 1,6

B€ over 7 years

Vehicle ITD

Dassault Aviation &
Fraunhofer Institute
116 M€

Eco-design
For Airframe and Systems

Smart Fixed-Wing
Aircraft

Transverse ITD
for all vehicles

Airbus
& SAAB
393 M€

Green Regional
Aircraft
Alenia
& EADS CASA
174 M€

Green
Rotorcraft
Eurocopter
& AgustaWestland
159 M€

Sustainable and
Green Engines
Rolls-Royce &
Safran
421 M€

Clean Sky Technology Evaluator
31 M€

Systems for Green
Operations
Liebherr & Thales
304 M€
7
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009

ITD: Integrated Technology Demonstrator
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Clean Sky budget allocation
Clean Sky budget allocation



Total budget
EC contribution

1600 M€ maximum
800 M€



ITD Leaders

max 800 M€ (50% from EC)







AgustaWestland, Airbus, Alenia, Dassault Aviation, EADSCASA, Eurocopter, Fraunhofer Institute, Liebherr, Rolls-Royce,
Saab, Safran, Thales

Associates

max 400 M€ (50% from EC)

DLR, EADS-IW, Galileo-Avionica, …
• Clusters: GSAF, …




Partners, via Calls for Proposals
267-400 M€ (50-75% from EC)
8
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

SGO: How can aircraft systems contribute to environmental
SGO: How can aircraft systems contribute to environmental
objectives?
objectives?

Aircraft Flight and
Navigation Systems
Aircraft Equipment
Systems

9
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

How can aircraft systems contribute to environmental objectives?
How can aircraft systems contribute to environmental objectives?
The Environment

Choice of fuel

Manufacture and disposal

Operational Environment
Aircraft

Flight operations and maintenance

Fuel
Aircraft Flight and
Navigation Systems
Aircraft Equipment
Systems

Work
Waste

Powerplant

Work

Pollution
Heat
Noise
CO2 and NOx
Other
Chemicals

Waste

Minimize fuel required for aircraft operation
Minimize waste
Enable engine and aircraft flexibility
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

10

Systems enablers for ACARE environmental goals
Systems enablers for ACARE environmental goals
Reduction in CO2
and NOx

Reduction in other
pollutants

Reduction in
noise

System Design
Electrical Systems
Management of Energy
Aerodynamic Design
Management of Mission
and Trajectory
Smart Operations on
Ground
Manufacturing
Materials
Life Cycle Management
Systems for Green Operations ITD
Other ITDs
11
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Myth: “More Electric” Aircraft is a new idea
Myth: “More Electric” Aircraft is a new idea

1941: Fokke-Wulf 190-A
• Electrically actuated and locked landing gear
• Servo-motor actuators for flaps and tailplane
• Electrically pitched propeller
• Electrically fired cannon
12
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

From “More Electric” to “More More More Electric”
From “More Electric” to “More More More Electric”

1952: Avro Vulcan

2007: Airbus A380

1964: Vickers VC-10

2008: Lockheed F-35
2009: Boeing 787
2010: AgustaWestland EH 101 upgrade

13
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Aircraft Energy
Management of Aircraft Energy

All-electric aircraft equipment system architectures


Objectives:




To facilitate the all-electric aircraft, which leads to new possibilities in
reducing aircraft emissions through lower fuel consumption

Concepts:





Maturation of the collaborative modelling process used to construct and
evaluate electrical architectures
Maturation of technologies in electrical power generation, distribution and
usage
Maturation of thermal technologies and overall thermal management
concepts
Validation of the architectural concepts to manage total energy, through
flight testing and ground test

14
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Aircraft Energy
Management of Aircraft Energy

All-electric aircraft equipment system
architectures


Means:








Removal of hydraulic fluids
Zero-emission fuel cells
Removal of engine bleed systems
Less total system weight
Total energy management

Examples:
Electro-hydrostatic actuators
• Peak demands from one consumer can be compensated by
reducing other demands


15
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Aircraft Energy
Management of Aircraft Energy

All-electric aircraft equipment system
architectures


Aircraft functions to be addressed:









Primary power generation and distribution
Auxiliary and emergency energy/power generation and storage
Engine support
Cabin and aircraft pressurisation
Aircraft thermal management
Flight control
Ice and rain protection
Take-off, landing, taxiing and braking

16
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Trajectory and Mission and relation
Management of Trajectory and Mission and relation
with the ATM and ATC
with the ATM and ATC


ATM and ATC constraints and procedures impose flight profiles
significantly different from the optimal:
Aircraft must fly through airways and waypoints
• Aircraft must fly at imposed levels, with limited manoeuvring freedom
between them
• ATC Management of arriving aircraft at airports is made through
instructions diverging from the fuel-optimum solution




There is an opportunity to reduce fuel consumption in flying / moving
the aircraft in a more efficient way



This requires working together on procedures / ATC operations and
aircraft capabilities



In Europe, the SESAR and Clean Sky programmes are launched in
parallel, which creates a unique opportunity to perform the required
leap-change
17
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Trajectory and Mission: Objectives
Management of Trajectory and Mission: Objectives


Trajectory & Mission Management
Definition of “optimum” trajectories for approaches and
climbs achieving the minimum environmental combined
impact for noise and fuel
Definition of new missions profiles, taking into account the
atmospheric perturbations, and definition of new on-board
systems / functions to enable the aircraft to fly them

Assessment of different solutions to validate if they are
compatible with SESAR results or guidelines, for 2013,
2020 and 2020+
Design the aircraft systems enabling to fly:


these optimised trajectories



the optimised missions, minimising environmental impact in
any combination of environmental constraints
18
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Trajectory and Mission
Management of Trajectory and Mission


Smart Ground Operations


Objective : design aircraft systems to optimise
use of engine power when aircraft on ground,
for Silent and fuel-efficient taxiing capabilities



Use of the landing gear system as a motoring
system on ground, so as to allow airplane
engines during taxi, with the expected double
benefit of reducing ground noise and reducing
fuel burn

19
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Management of Trajectory and Mission:
Management of Trajectory and Mission:
enabling technologies
enabling technologies


(1/2)
(1/2)

Flight Management:
Implementation of optimised Arrival functions:
Implementation of optimised Departures: NADP
Green Cruise: continuous climb cruise, enhanced “continuous” descent approaches inherited
from results in European collaborative research: OPTIMAL

(1)

Multi criteria trajectory optimization:





Cost index
Emissions: considering upcoming environmental taxes
Noise reduction
Time arrival

Management of new Airplane aerodynamics / engines


Surveillance & Situation awareness
Atmospheric conditions detection
Improved weather radar algorithms
Coupling of atmospheric sensors with the FMS: inherited from results in European
collaborative research: FLYSAFE(1)

(1)

European funded Project, FP6: refer to : www.optimal.isdefe.es and www.eu-flysafe.org
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

20

Management of Trajectory and Mission:
Management of Trajectory and Mission:
enabling technologies
enabling technologies


con’t (2/2)
con’t (2/2)

Databases: new aircraft performances, navigation procedures, protected areas,
atmospheric conditions, environmental parameters



Functions supporting gate to gate operations:
towards pilot decision making




Based on Quasi-artificial technologies
Weather conditions updates and alternative flight path
List of parameters to be optimized during the flight and exchanged with ATM

towards Airlines operations during the flight preparation phase: Optimization of flight
plan during preparation phase (depending on fuel price, weather conditions, Aircraft configuration,
….)


Cockpit MMI to operate the new functions



Localisation / Navigation systems

High level of maturity (TRL6),
Compatible with SESAR procedures
Environmentally friendly from Gate to Gate
21
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

From Solutions to Demonstrations: Technology Evaluator
From Solutions to Demonstrations: Technology Evaluator
Smart structures &
low-noise configurations

New concepts & active control

Innovative rotor &
engine integration

Monitoring
Consistency
Synergy

Low-noise &
lightweight low-pressure systems
High efficiency low Nox cores
Novel configurations

All electrical aircraft technologies and systems
Thermal management
Green trajectories management
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Green design, manufacture,
maintenance, recycling for
Airframe & Systems

22

TE : scope & methodology
TE : scope & methodology
SGO and TE respective scopes in Clean Sky
Evaluation of the environmental impacts of inserted technologies is
performed in the TE by comparing scenarios



Operations of Current technology aircraft fleet, vs
Operations of new fleet hypothesis, with Clean Sky Conceptual Aircraft insertion

Technologies developed in the ITD SGO will be delivered to the ITD
SFWA and integrated to the “Conceptual Aircraft”
Assessment will be performed at the Aircraft level

TE methodology
The TE analyses Air Traffic operations and enables ITDs feedback at
various levels :
Single aircraft mission A to B (Mission level)
Airport area (Operational level)
Regional / World (Global level)

SGO WP3.1 Models & tools

Needs of common models
23

Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Technologies to be demonstrated on aircraft (ground
Technologies to be demonstrated on aircraft (ground
and/or flight)
and/or flight)













Management of Aircraft Energy
Ice Protection
Environmental Control System
Skin heat exchanger
Thermal functions
Electrical technologies
Multi-functional fuel cells
Management of Trajectory and Mission
Green functions (optimization)
Green FMS (supporting optimization functions)
External tractor for long taxi
24
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Saab’s involvment in Clean Sky
Saab’s involvment in Clean Sky








Management of Aircraft Energy
Ice Protection
Thermal Management
Management of trajectory and mission
Mission and trajectory optimization
Modular and Shared Power Electronics

25
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

Conclusions
Conclusions


The Systems for Green Operations ITD is based on the
following two concepts which will contribute to the goals
of Clean Sky :
The Management of Aircraft Energy (MAE)
• The Management of Mission and Trajectory (MTM)







The Clean Sky project will last for 7 years
Technology will mainly be inserted in new aircraft types
Some technology may be used for upgrading current
aircraft
SESAR and Clean Sky will work together to define the
future ATM system and procedures
26
Transportforum – 8 jan 2009
Lars Rundqwist – Saab AB

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