APEIS Project: Development & Applications of Strategic Data Base (SDB) for India

APEIS Project: Development & Applications of Strategic Data Base (SDB) for India

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Author: P.R. Shukla (Fellow) | Visits: 1972 | Page Views: 1982
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Transportation Subcategory: Auto 
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Maxims of Tech: Rules of Engagement for a Fast Changing Environment
Contents:
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

APEIS Project:
Development & Applications of Strategic Data Base (SDB) for India
P.R. Shukla

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India

Presentation for the 12th AIM International Workshop NIES, Tsukuba, Japan, February 19-21, 2007
APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Technological Innovations



Demand Side Technology � Transport Sector � Household Sector � Industrial Sector � Agriculture Sector Supply Side Technology � Power Sector Institutional Governance � Finance Sector





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Electric Car

Transport Sector

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REVA Electric Car Company (RECC) designs, develops, manufactures and markets electric vehicles under the brand name "Reva" It is the cheapest commercially produced electric car in the world It is an that extremely safe car, has been specifically designed for congested city driving conditions Features � Easiest car to drive � It is twice as efficient as a petrol driven vehicle and has an operating cost as low as 0.4 Rs. / km � Requires extremely low maintenance because of the minimum number of moving parts � Environment friendly - No CFC's or fluids Significance An average car in India emits : � 5 gm / Km of NOx and HC / 24 g / Km of CO � Reduction of noise pollution
1 1





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Electric Car
Market Potential � Around 1000 cars in the domestic market � 600 in overseas markets � Major export to USA, Norway, Switzerland, Cyprus, Japan, Srilanka and Malta � Reva has received the EEC ( European Economic Community) Certificate Constraints � High cost of ownership due to the stiff price � Limited range of driving for those whose usage is not be restricted within the city � The perception that electric vehicles are not safe to drive Cost Information
Car Type Standard (non a/c) Classe Price (Rs. 000) 310 405 1 1 Driving range (Km) 80 60

Transport Sector







APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Electravan

Transport Sector

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Eco friendly battery operated vehicle Introduced by Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) Technical features � Range per charge : 70 Kms/ Max. Speed : 40 KMPH � Energy Consumption : 0.5 KWH / Km � Smokeless, noiseless, oil free battery powered vehicle � Seating capacity : 15 +1 Significance � Ideal vehicle to keep environment clean � Reduction in noise pollution � Recurring savings of petrol or diesel � Less operating and maintenance cost Cost information � >than Rs 1.2 million � Running cost : about Rs 1.50 per km
1 1
Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

YO-BYKE

Transport Sector

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The most economical and battery (rechargeable) driven two wheeler Electrotherm India Ltd, the promoter of the YO-BYKES in India YObykes work on a completely new technology where the two-wheelers do not have any engine and exhaust Significance � It is cheapest to buy, cheapest to run and cheapest to maintain � No license, no PUC, no Registration Certificate required for YO-BYKE Cost Information � Cost lesser than regular petrol vehicles (0.15- 0.18 Rs./km)
Model YOSmart YOSpin YOTrust YOTeen YOTrend YOTuff Range / Charge Mileage 75 Km 55 Km 75 Km 50 Km 50 Km 50 Km 1 1 Price (Rs.) 23249 20749 17499 16499 15749 13999
Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Hythane Bus
Ashok Leyland has signed an agreement with Brehon Energy PLC, Australia, for technology for the use of ecologically superior Hythane gas in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines Offers 6-cylinder `H' series engines to operate on Hythane �"clean fuel"

Transport Sector







Features � Use of Hythane, which is a prepared blend of hydrogen and natural gas, dramatically reduces gaseous emissions compared to CNG � Max.speed : 75 Km/ Hour Significance � Used for Passenger mass Transportation � Ideal for city bus application



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

CNG Auto Rickshaw
� CNG Auto-rickshaws are three wheelers fitted with engines using CNG as fuel � Developed by Bajaj Automotives Ltd � Features
� The CNG has a low cost and high performance which assure to save 65% of fuel expenses � 4-stroke,air cooled spark-ignited engine � Has a CNG cylinder (22 liter water capacity) capable of holding ~ 3.5 kg of CNG at 200 bar pressure � Fuel efficiency of ~ 45 km per kg of CNG � Complies with all notified safety standards � Emissions substantially lower than the prescribed limits

Transport Sector

� Cost Information
� The CNG Conversion kit : Rs. 50000/� The CNG Auto rickshaws : Rs. 150000/-

Constraints � Deficiency in CNG supply system � Uncertain future � Assurance of supply � Uncertain fuel price � Dependence on a single source � Long queues at CNG dispensing stations � Inadequate supply of conversion kits. � Inadequate training & awareness amongst auto rickshaw & bus drivers, other users, technicians &mechanics.

APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln

Industrial Sector

Vertical shaft brick kiln technology is used To produce quality bricks which are Energy efficient, Environment friendly & Economically viable � In 1995, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), New Delhi, launched an Action Research Project in India , to adopt the Chinese VSBK Technology to the Indian context � The first VSBK became operational in India in May 1996 at Datia (near Jhansi) in Madhya Pradesh � Features � Production of Bricks : 4000 bricks/day, 1batches/day depending upon shaft size. � Energy saving of about 50% compared to clamps and 20 to 30% compared to BTKs(Bull's Trench Kilns)

� Significance � Occupies less space - low land requirement � Minimal maintenance requirements � Flexibility in volume of production � Environmentally sound technology � Better quality bricks compared to clamps � Cost Information � Rs.250000 for a 2 shaft kiln

APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Building Bricks from Fly ash
The technique to produce building bricks from fly ash is developed by Central Fuel Research Institute- Jharkhand Used in construction Environment friendly process Commercialization Status � Four commercial plants have been set up (15,000-90,000 bricks per day)

Industrial Sector



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Cost information � About Rs.1200/- per thousand bricks (size 225x112x75mm ) � Rs.1300/- per thousand bricks (size 250 x 125 x 75 mm) � Plant cost Rs.6 million for a 20,000 bricks/day plant ( 3 shift )

APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

DO Probe

Industrial Sector

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A device is used for instant monitoring of organic pollution in wastewater Developed by Institute of Genomics and Integrated Biology (IGIB) in Delhi Features � Consist with a bio component, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and a transducer Significance � Biosensor can analyze a sample and generate the results of BOD / DO, in less than 10 minutes, at the site itself Cost information � DO meter :About Rs. 100000 � Biosensor : About Rs 30000-40,000 � Durability : One year





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Plasma Treatment

Industrial Sector

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An eco-friendly technology converts waste into commercially useful by-products Developed by Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies (FCIPT) The system runs with the help of plasma The whole process takes place in absence of oxygen Useful for management of hospital waste Significance � Compactness � Can be fully automated � Can be located inside the hospital building � Heat recovery for hospital utilities � No waste segregation required � above 95% volume reduction Cost Information � Capacity of treatment : 15-20 Kg / hour � Set-up cost : About Rs 1-1.2 million
1 1



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Plastic Avenue
Plastic waste along with bitumen are conventionally used as ingredient to make roads Technology developed by K K Plastic Waste Management Limited � Banglore

Industrial Sector







Significance � Can help to overcome the drawbacks of conventional system � Roads containing plastic do not easily develop cracks � Resists at high temperature and friction � Two tonnes of polyblend (plastic bags) is required for each Km of road Cost Information � Dry mixing : 15-20 % higher � Wet mixing : about 30 %higher, Than conventional technology



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Gasifiers

Industrial Sector



Used for the Conversion of biomass to producer gas for industrial thermal applications Features � Moisture content in fuel : less than 12% & good flow ability � Gas calorific value around 1100 kcal/Nm3 � Ash removal unit Manual for small systems � 4 kg of groundnut shell replace 1 litre of LDO Cost Information � Rs. 2500 to 3500 (US$ 55-77) / kg biomass conversion capacity





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Solar Water Heater
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Household Sector



Used for to get hot water in residential and institutional buildings Developed by Central Building Research Institute Made up by using GI pipes / fittings, GI sheets, aluminum sheets, mineral / glass wool insulation

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Available Models Domestic Large Low cost

Capacity (L) 140 600 Storage for oneday use

Temp. of water Morning : 48-50oC, Evening : 55oC Morning : 48-50oC, Evening : 55oC 65-70oC

Cost information (Rs.) 12000 30000 3000

APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Solar Dryer
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Household Sector



Used to dry various products for domestic use under hygienic conditions Significance � Includes high efficiency in uniform drying of products, � Suitable for rural/remote places � Drying temperature in desirable range � Light in weight � Easy to move Cost Information � Commercially available � Cost : Around Rs.1600/-





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Solar Refrigerator
Used to store medicine and vaccines at low temperature Features � Capacity 80 litres � Power Consumption : 60 W � Energy Consumption : 500-600 Wh/day � Inside temperature : 60 to (-3)0 C Cost Information � Commercially available � Cost : Around 100000

Household Sector







APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Solar Streetlight
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Household Sector



Designed for outdoor application in un-electrified remote rural areas Provided with battery storage to operate the light for 10-11 hours daily Require lower maintenance Has longer life Cost information � Rs.18,000 to Rs.21,000 per system



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APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Organic Farming

Agriculture Sector



Features � It promotes biodiversity of the soil and surrounding environment � Assurance of groundwater infiltration due to hazardous chemicals � Basic aim of land cultivation & increase in crop production by keeping soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes and other biological material Significance � Maintain healthy environment � Reduces level of pollution � Increases the agricultural products � Ensures the optimum utilization of natural resources for short-term benefit � Saves energy for both animal and machine and reduces the risk of crop failure
1 1
Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Bio Fertilizer

Agriculture Sector



Ready to use live formulates of beneficial microorganism which on application to seed, root or soil Mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity and help build up the micro flora and soil health Godavari Fertiliser and Chemical Limited produces eco-friendly Bio-fertiliser for different crops of Rice, Groundnut, Soyabean, Sugarcane etc. Constraints � Require care in storage � Biofertilizers are not replacement of fertilizers but can supplement their requirement





Biofertiliser combination on Ground nut



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Agro Technologies

Agriculture Sector

1. Technology for Protected Cultivation of Vegetables in High Altitudes 2. Mushroom Cultivation 3. True Potato Seed (TPS) Technology

TPS Technology
APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Mushroom cultivation
1 1
Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Solar Tunnel Dryer

Agriculture Sector

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Used for Agro industrial applications Useful for bulk drying of agricultural & industrial products at moderate air temperature The average temperature inside the tunnel : 15-18oC Cost Information � Materials and labour Cost : Rs 50,000 � Cost of drying is reduced by around Rs.800 per tonne in solar tunnel dryer compared to the diesel fired mechanical dryer





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Fast Breeder Reactor
Globally option Advanced Nuclear Technology In India one 40 MW Fast Breeder Test Reactor in operation since 1985.Another 500 MW Reactor under construction Cost Information � Capital cost : Rs. 52 million � Power generation cost: Rs. 151 per Kwe. Constraints � India is having a fuel embargo but the recent Indo-US Nuclear agreement will remove barriers

Power Sector









APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Advanced Heavy Water Reactor
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Power Sector



Concept is developed to utilize the large amounts of Thorium deposits within the country A small test reactor of 30 KW called Kamini is under operation and a 300 MW reactor is under development Cost Information � Capital cost : > than FBR Constraints � The reactor is still under development � Take some time to get commercially exploited







APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Biomass Gasifier
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Power Sector



Biomass gasification is conversion of solid Biomass in to a combustible gas mixture normally called "Producer Gas" Three designs of gasifiers are � Updraft � Downdraft � Cross draft In Indian market downdraft gasifiers are available due to utilization of mechanical mode Cost Information � Cost based on electricity generation systems range from Rs. 40 million/ MW to Rs. 45 million/ MW







APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Bio-Petrol
Four technologies for bioethanol production � Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis � Dilute Acid Hydrolysis � Enzymatic Hydrolysis � Cellulose Enzyme Research

Power Sector

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Ethanol made from cellulosic biomass is known as Bioethanol



The first three are based on producing sugars from biomass and then fermenting the sugars to ethanol. The fourth is a very different approach involving thermal processing of biomass to gaseous hydrogen and carbon monoxide, followed by fermentation to ethanol



APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Bio-Diesel


Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Power Sector

Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources and animal fats Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plants of Jatropha curcas Significance � It reduce vehicle emission which makes it eco-friendly � It is made from renewable sources and can be prepared locally. � Increases engine performance. � Increased safety in storage and transport because the fuel is nontoxic and bio degradable � Reduction of greenhouse gases at least by 3.3 kg CO2 equivalent per kg of Bio-diesel





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Bio-Diesel
Cost information
Activities Seed Cost of collection & oil extraction Less cake produced Trans-esterification Less cost of glycerin produced Cost of Bio-diesel per kg Cost of Bio-diesel per liter (Sp. Gravity 0.85) Rate (Rs. / Kg) 5.00 2.36 1.00 6.67 40 to 60

Power Sector



Quantity (Kg) 3.28 1.05 2.23 1.00 0.095

Cost( Rs.) 16.40 2.48 (-) 2.23 6.67 (-) 3.8 to 5.7 19.52 to 17.62 16.59 to 14.98

Jetropha plant

Jetropha Cultivation
1 1

APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

BioGas
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Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Power Sector

Anaerobic Digestion Process Biomass like animal excreta, vegetable wastes and weeds undergo decomposition in the absence of oxygen in a Biogas plant and form a mixture of gases. Used as a fuel for cooking and lighting Significance � Production of electricity and heat provides valuable income � A closed carbon dioxide cycle reduces atmospheric pollution � Positive use of organic waste materials reduces land and water pollution � Reduced use of chemical fertilizers minimizes leaching from soil

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APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Micro Finance
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

Institutional Governance

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SKS Microfinance, launched in 1998 Offers interest-free loans for emergencies as well as life insurance to borrowers Its affiliate, SKS Education, provides education services to poor children, including running a government-funded school for girls who have dropped out of school Cost Information � The personnel and administration costs easily amount to 11% of total cost structure Constraints � Many poor do not fit within the current structure





APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

Application of Strategic Database
Strategic Enegry Data base: India

The SDB of technological, institutional and management innovations enhances the choice set for strategic interventions in future scenarios. In Indian modeling, SDB is used for (some examples): � Developing descriptions of future Scenarios � Specifying and quantifying drivers of Sustainable Development in Assessment of technology transfer and market penetration analysis � e.g. Energy Snap Shot (ESS) Model presented separately � Introduction of innovations for cost-effective transition in scenarios: e.g. Low Carbon Society Scenario which is presented separately

Thank you
APEIS Project: Strategic Data Base (SDB) for INDIA

1 1

Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad

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